-ing and –ed clauses

投稿者: | 2017年1月15日

-ing and –ed clauses


A clause is a sentence.

Some clauses begin with –ing or –ed.


For example:


Do you know the woman talking to Tom?

                                              -ing clause


The boy injured in the accident was taken to hospital?

               -ed clause


–ing clauses to say what somebody (or something) is (or was) doing at a particular time:



 Do you know the woman talking to Tom?

 Police investigating the crime are looking for three men.

 Who were those people waiting outside?   

 I was woken up by a bell ringing.


You can also use an –ing clause to say what happens all the time,

not just at a particular time.



 The road connecting the two villages is very narrow.

 I have a large room overlooking the garden.

 Can you think of the name of a flower beginning with T?



-ed clause have a passive meaning:




The boy injured in the accident was taken to hospital.

George showed me some pictures painted by his father.


Injured and invited are past participles.

Note that many past participles are irregular and do not end in -ed

(stolen/ made/ written/ etc):


 The police never found the money stolen in the robbery.

 Most of the goods made in this factory are exported.


Adjective ending in –ing and –ed


Many adjectives end –ing and –ed,

for example: boring and bored.


Jane’s job is boring.

Jane is bored (with her job).


Somebody is bored if something (or somebody else) is boring.

Or, if something is boring, it makes you bored. So:


 Jane is bored because her job is boring.

 Jane’s job is boring, so Jane is bored. (not Jane is boring)


If a person is boring, this means that they make other people bored.


 George always talks about the same things. He is really boring.







Compare adjectives ending in –ing and -ed:


My job is boring (interesting/ tiring/ satisfying/ depressing/ etc).


In these examples, the –ing adjective tells you about the job.

I’m bored with my job.

I’m not interested in my job any more.

I get very tired doing my job.

I’m not satisfied with my job.

My job makes me depressed. (etc.)


In these examples, the –ed adjective tells you how somebody feels.



Compare these examples:


Julia thinks politics is interesting.

Julia is interested in politics.


It was surprising that he passed the exam.

Everybody was surprised that he passed the exam.


The movie was disappointing. We expected it to be much better.

We were disappointed with the movie. We expected it to be much better.


The news was shocking.

I was shocked when I heard the news.






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